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التبادل الاعلاني

How to make Nitric Acid

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How to make Nitric Acid

مُساهمة من طرف fgr في الأربعاء أغسطس 15, 2012 3:27 am

وَأَعِدُّوا لَهُمْ مَا اسْتَطَعْتُمْ مِنْ قُوَّةٍ وَمِنْ
رِبَاطِ الْخَيْلِ تُرْهِبُونَ بِهِ عَدُوَّ اللَّهِ وَعَدُوَّكُمْ
وَآخَرِينَ مِنْ دُونِهِمْ لا تَعْلَمُونَهُمُ اللَّهُ يَعْلَمُهُمْ وَمَا
تُنْفِقُوا مِنْ شَيْءٍ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ يُوَفَّ إِلَيْكُمْ
وَأَنْتُمْ لا تُظْلَمُونَ



How to make Nitric Acid




Watch
this science video tutorial from Nurd Rage on how to make nitric acid.
They show three ways to make nitric acid based on two different
chemical approaches, both of which can be done using easily accessible
materials.



Warning: The procedures in this video produce
large quantities of toxic gases and deal with highly corrosive acids.
All work must be performed in a fume hood with proper safety equipment.
And all apparatus must be glass to withstand the acids.

Chemically,
nitric acid is made by bubbling nitrogen dioxide into water. So the
objective in this approach is to generate nitrogen dioxide. This can be
done by reacting hydrochloric acid, a nitrate salt and copper. Around
80-grams of sodium nitrate, over 30-grams of copper and 100-mL of
hydrochloric acid are the quantities needed. The exact amount isn't
critical. For useable concentrations, the amount of water being
converted should be small, around 20-50-mL.

Any source of nitrate is usable including potassium nitrate, ammonium nitrate and even nitrate-based fertilizers.

The
tricky part now is leading the gas into water. Two approaches are shown
in the video. In the first approach three containers, such as jars are
place inside each other to force the gas to go into the water. This is
very inefficient but is very simple to do.

The better approach is to lead the gas out of the generator through a tube and into a chilled container of water.

The
last way of making pure nitric acid is to react concentrated sulfuric
acid and a pure nitrate salt (NOT fertilizer) and heat it in a glass
distillation apparatus to distill over the pure nitric acid.
Stochiometric quantities of both reagents are recommended for maximum
yield

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Chemically, nitric acid is made by
bubbling nitrogen dioxide into water. So the objective is to generate
nitrogen dioxide. In the first two methods, nitrogen dioxide is
generated by reacting copper with an acidic solution of nitrate ions

Cu + 2NaNO3 + 4HCl → CuCl2 + 2NaCl + 2NO2 + 2H2O

The
reaction is written with sodium nitrate as the nitrate source but this
will work with almost any nitrate salt. Hydrochloric acid is used
because it's the most convenient but sulfuric acid can also be used. An
excess of acid is needed to keep the solution acidic enough to generate
nitrogen dioxide. Otherwise, nitrogen monoxide will be generated

3Cu + 2NaNO3 + 8HCl → 3CuCl2 + 2NaCl + 2NO + 4H2O

Once nitrogen dioxide is obtained, it is bubbled through hydrogen peroxide to produce nitric acid

2NO2 +H2O2 → 2HNO3

Alternatively,
if hydrogen peroxide is unavailable, it can be bubbled just through
water with the awareness that the yield will be reduced

NO2 + H2O → 2 HNO3 + NO3

The copper chloride salts from the reaction mix can be reconverted back into valuable copper to create more acid

2Al + 3CuCl2 → 2AlCl3 + 3Cu

If
you have sulfuric acid and glass distillation equipment then it is
better to create pure nitric acid by reacting a pure nitrate salt like
sodium nitrate with sulfuric acid and heating the mixture to boil off
the nitric acid

2NaNO3 + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + 2HNO3
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fgr
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تاريخ التسجيل : 10/01/2011

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