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العبوات القمعية الخارقة efp

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العبوات القمعية الخارقة efp

مُساهمة من طرف fgr في الجمعة سبتمبر 27, 2013 4:59 pm

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
لا اله الا الله
صل على سيدنا محمد و اله و اصحابه و سلم
وضعت لكم عن العبوات القمعية باللغة الانكليزية بسبب بعض الاخوة يحتاج الى هذا الشرح
بسبب سهولة الحصول على الترجمة او معوقات اخرة










How to build your own armour killers
   
EFP Explosively_Formed_Penetrator
 
If you belong to the resistance and want fast improvements of your killing capacity then go here.
 
Everything of the information on this webpage is available from the U.S governments websites. And it is also available on the weapons industries homepages. And you have seen them on TV.
And you will learn the same from the army's specialist troops.
Shaped charges are also used in the oil industry and for civilian demolition jobs.
The oil industry are detonating millions of shaped charges every year.
 
"According to defence sources, basic armour-piercing weapons are easy to manufacture, drawing on principles discovered more than a century ago and in use since World War Two. "
 
 
Two different types
Jet
Max distance :   A few centimeters
Penetrates armour :   4 - 10 times the diameter
EFP
Max distance :    Hundreds of meters
Penetrates armour :    0.4 - 0.8 times the diameter
 
Jet weapons are too easy to disable with easy countermeasure.
That's why we only should use EFP.
 
 
"Long standoff demolition warheads to defeat
armour, masonry and concrete targets"
 

Home made kitchen improvised armour killer, anyone can build an EFP.
The picture is from a demonstration by the U.S. military.
You can build these at home
 
 
EFP  Explosively_Formed_Penetrator
At first glance it looks like a bomb, but it is not a bomb.
It's a cannon.
EFP consist of  a housing, explosives and a metal dish in front of it.
When it detonates, a projectile is created.
Projectile speed :   1500 - 3000 m/s.
Penetrates an armour plate of half the dish diameter in thickness.
 
 
The EFPs in the U.S military M303 SOFDK   Special_Operations_Forces_Demolition_Kit
Housing :  Glass filled Polyuretahne
Explosive :  C-4   (RDX mixture)
EFP Liner :  Iron
 
 Diameter (cm)Weight (kg)Explosives (kg)Armour penetration at 15 meters standoff (cm)
Small7.60.520.272.5
Medium15.24.32.57.0
X-Large20.38.75.110
 

EFPs optimized against different targets

Penetration :   Long rod EFP.
Use against armour steel, armoured vehicles.
Just make a  hole in as thick armour as possible.

Demolition :   Short rod EFP, flat projectile
Use against concrete, buildings, bridges.
Make a bigger hole or destroy the target , all kinetic energy absorbed in the target.
 


Hole in 63.5mm (2.5 inch) thick armour steel.
 
 
 
 
OK, we know that the EFP is a cannon.
The question is, will I hit the target,
Or will I miss the target ?
 

Testing of Medium SOFDK EFP Warhead  
Range (meters)15506070100150
No.of tests1732351
Avg radial miss distance (cm)737  ?16274323
You can't miss the target.
 

 

How big EFP do you need ?
Armoured vehicles can be split up in at least two classes of armour thickness.

    The tank which has very thick armour.        ( 1 - 5 % of all armoured vehicles. )
    All other vehicles 20 - 40 mm armour.        ( 95 - 99 % of all armoured vehicles. )
The EFPs should have the size of  penetrating more than 40 mm armour
That's enough to kill 95 - 99 % of all armoured vehicles when attacked from any direction.
 
An EFP of size 150 mm diameter is optimum
Use it for mass production.
It will penetrate 40 - 75 mm of armour steel dependent on how careful you were in the construction.
A heavy battle tank can only be penetrated by a 150 mm EFP at the top or bottom where the armour is thinner. A top or belly attack.
Abrams drivers 2.5 inch (64mm) top armour.
The side armour of an Abrams is 150 - 200 mm in thickness. (If you does not hit the additional thickness of the wheels and tracks.)
If you want a special big size EFP for the killing of a tank from a side attack, then you need a 400 mm calibre EFP or more. See flat efp design further down on this page.
 
Iron, copper or tantalum for the liner ?
The penetration for an EFP projectile made of iron in armour steel is almost the same as the projectiles length. And the projectile length is almost half the diameter of the EFP-dish which makes it easy to calculate.
But the penetration is also dependent on the specific weight of what the EFP projectile is made of.
In theory copper gives 14% better penetration than iron for the same diameter.   Some EFPs use a liner made of tantalum, which can penetrate twice the armour thickness when compared to a liner made of iron.
Tantalum : Specific weight 16654 kg /m3
Copper : Specific weight 8960 kg/m3
Iron : Specific weight 7874 kg/m3
The only reason for using a liner made of tantalum is that you have limitations in the available space. Some EFP weapons (SADARM) are delivered to the target by a howitzer which have a maximum 155 mm calibre.
There is no such limitation in size for your roadside bombs.
For your homemade EFPs, don't bother about tantalum, increase the calibre instead.
 
The EFP-charge's weight increases with a cubic factor (diameter3) which means that an EFP of 200 mm in size is 8 times heavier than an EFP of 100 mm size.
 
The penetration in aluminium armour is 2.7 times the penetration in armour steel.
Some military vehicles have armour made of aluminium.
 
The penetration in concrete is 3 - 5 times the penetration in armour steel.
An EFP of 150 mm diameter in size can punch a hole through 20 - 40 cm of concrete.
 
Attacking fortified concrete buildings
EFP is a standoff demolition tool. You don't have to be near the target.
All those concrete barricades which have been erected to stop suicide vehicle bombs becomes useless if the resistance use EFP. Just shoot over any obstacle.
 
If you intend to attack and destroy a building :
Sometimes a conventional attack with 100 men armed with heavy weapons is out of question because of the enemys superior firepower.
What you need is a surprise attack of 0.1 seconds that kills the enemy before they even have a chance to start using their superior weapons. And you need a weapon that can shoot over all those concrete obstacles that the enemy have put up to stop you. A car loaded with multiple EFPs is one of the best weapons for that job.
A single fighter in a car can do the job that 100 men with conventional heavy weapons can't do.
You can pack the firepower of an entire army into a single car filled with 100 EFPs.
And you can deliver all those EFP projectiles with a simple push on the button.
The fight is over in less than 0.1 seconds. No time for the enemy to fight or defend themselves.
 

Triple 15 cm diameter EFPs against 20 cm thick reinforced concrete wall.
Will open up a 75 cm diameter hole.
But the resistance will rather put 20 EFPs in line on a truck and aim 1 meter above the ground ?
Because they want to kill the enemy instead of open up an entrance.
If the building has a second floor then add another line of EFPs.
 
 


20cm diameter EFP against 60cm thick reinforced concrete column.
This picture is from an U.S military test.
 
Concrete barricades can't protect a building against a vehicle filled up with the EFPs above.
Because you can attack from far away and shoot over any obstacles.
 
 
 
 
The most important question, why use EFPs ?
Only EFP can penetrate the armour.
Metal fragments from artillery shells can't penetrate the armour.
RPGs can't penetrate the armor because of easy countermeasures like slat armor (steel bars) and external boxes.
But these counter measures don't work against EFP.
Big fertilizer bombs made of ANFO Ammonium Nitrate Fuel Oil are heavy and take long time to plant. Which becomes a logistics problem for the resistance. But they are still useful.
Most other types of roadside bombs under the road or too close to the road are useless because of the enemy's metal detectors. And these bombs that the enemy can find and neutralize too easy are a big waste of your time and money.
It's a question about becoming more effective.
To kill more armour when carrying and using less explosives.
To plant more low weight armour killers in the same amount of time as the resistance use for carrying all heavy explosives for killing a single vehicle.
To save a lot of time by not digging too deep and wide holes in the road.
War cost money, and you must try use some mathematics and planning to become more effective.
And try maximize the number of killed enemies per spended dollar and worked hour.
 
The disadvantages of  the big bombs are obvious :
Artillery shells are heavy (50kg), you must use a car.
It's time consuming. And it's not effective.
It's easy to locate and disarm because digging a very big hole in a paved road is obvious to an eye. Any metal buried under the road can easily be detected with metal detectors.
An EFP of 3 kg is more effective than 500 kg of artilleryshells, if you look at how much damage you can give the enemy per kg of explosives and per worked hour. Which means that you can kill more armoured vehicles per worked hour if you start using EFP.
Become more effective !

EFPs are 6 times more effective at killing the enemy compared to all other types of bombs.
99 EFPs planted in July 2007 killed 23 and wounded 89
The U.S. battlefield statistics for July 2007 reveals that the EFPs have a killing efficiency of 23% while other types of bombs have an efficiency of less than 4%. But the killing efficiency of the EFP can be improved up to 40% in the future while the other types of bombs will have a decrease in their killing efficiency down to perhaps 1%, because the easy target Humvees are being replaced with the new types of MRAP vehicles.
 
The EFPs advantages :

  • Penetrates all armour. No armoured vehicle is safe.
  • EFP is a cannon which means there is no safe standoff distance for the enemy.
    Concrete barricades can't stop the use of EFPs
  • The counter measure that works against jetting charges like RPG is useless angainst EFP.
    The boxes and steelbars (slat armour) on the vehicles that predetonates the RPGs at safe distance from the armour will not protect against EFP. Because EFP is a projectile, not a jet.
  • Low weight. You can carry 5-10 EFPs in a bag, you don't need a car.
  • You use less time to plant EFPs.
  • You can hide yourself in the vegetation when you plant the EFPs instead
    of being visible near the road. (Snipers and unmanned drones watch the roads.)
  • You can plant the EFP-cannon at longer standoff from the road making it harder to
    locate and disarm. The enemy must scan and clean a bigger area hundreds of meters wide. It's not enough to just use explosives to blow a narrow path through the minefield as they do against conventional mines. And mine sweeping vehicles have no use of the robot arm and becomes vulnerable.
  • EFPs directs the destruction energy at the target. Less collateral damage
    if used in a city. Especially if attacking the target from the underside.

The main disadvantage of EFPs is that you must build them.
While artilleryshells are available from the shelf.
Another disadvantage is that the metal liner is visible on radar. But the god news is that the landscape is polluted with metal especially in urban areas. And it's possible to use a steelbar instead of a circular liner which is easier to hide. Or try build a pop up mechanism.
 



 

EFPs are also used in anti-helicoptermines.
Microphones, IR-sensors and electric motors are used to automatically aim the EFP at the helicopter and BOOM it is shot down.

Helicoptermine using EFP



Bangalore blade
An explosives filled aluminum profile tube EFP used to cut concertina wire and destroy mines.
The newest evolution of the Bangalore is the Bangalore blade, an updated version made from lightweight aluminium and using explosively formed penetrator technology to breach obstacles which the original Bangalore would have been unable to defeat. In a test detonation conducted on the television show Future Weapons, the Bangalore Blade blasted a gap roughly 5 metres wide in concertina wire, and also created a trench deep enough to detonate most nearby anti-personnel mines. The Bangalore Blade was developed in the United Kingdom by Alford Technologies and is intended for use with both standard army and Special Forces units that require a lightweight, portable obstacle-clearing device.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bangalore_torpedo

Another proof of the fact that EFP is easy to build at home and that
EFPs don't have to be circular or machined with precision in iran.
 
 
 
 
SADARM, an armour destroying EFP weapon delivered by a howitzer, (artillery cannon).
Seek And Destroy ARMor
The warhead is hanging and spinning in a parachute and an EFP is fired if a target is detected with IR or other sensors.
 
M-killing and K-killing tanks.
EFPs are also used in modern types of antitank mines. Killing the tank from the underside.
Older types of mines caused what they call M-kill (mobility kill), destroying the tracks.
New types of EFP_mines causes K-kill, killing the crew.
You will find out more if you do a search on TRMP-6, Russian antitank mine.
And U.S artillery delivered scatterable antitank mines.
The countermeasure against these new mines is to hang armour as close to the ground as possible.
It's a matter of distorting the formation of the EFP slug
Your countermeasure against that is to put the EFPs deeper down in a deeper hole to give them enough acceleration time and EFP-slug forming standoff distance.
These mines have 2 explosive charges, the first small charge blows off the soil which hides the mine, the second big charge launches the EFP.
Some of these antitank mines uses no more explosives than in a handgrenade.
That's effective resistance if compared to the older tank mines of 10 - 20 kg explosives.
 
The EFP can be placed at the bottom of a tube ( otherwise the alternative is to use a second charge to blow off the soil and camouflage ). The end plug should be of low weight.
The tube will give the EFP distance enough to shape and accelerate. And is a countermeasure against the countermeasure. (Against the hanging plate under the vehicle that stops the EFP projectile from forming and accelerating.)
 
 
 
Hezballahs roadsidebombs forced the occupation of lebanon to end.

The Hamas manufactured Shawaz (Flame) EFP has a penetration capability of 200 mm (8") of steel.
The liner looks like a very deep dish which indicates that this is perhaps very close to a jetting charge.
There is a grey zone between EFP and jetting charges that is worth some research if you want to improve the penetration. Very long stretched EFP projectiles.
 

How to build EFPs in the kitchen
The Liner
The most work will be on shaping the liner, the metal disc.
Use copper, brass, iron or steel
Copper  melts at 1083 degrees Celsius, and brass at 900,  iron melts at 1500.
Try casting or use a hammer or hydraulic press.
Because you have no lathe at home ?
What's best for massproduction.
But first look at the available EFP housing to see what liner diameter to use.
The easiest EFP is built from a simple steel bar.
Read more about further down on this webpage.
The more precise you do the work the more precise will the EFP hit the target.
Your own homemade EFPs will have perhaps have 10 - 30 % less penetration than the experts, but you can compensate for that by using a bigger calibre.
For homemade EFPs it is trial and error.
Try some different constructions and test against a concrete wall (for demolition) or against steel plates (for penetration), use the best construction for mass production.
 
 
Housing
The housing can be made of glass fibre filled polyurethane, concrete, or a steel pipe
The only reason for using polyurethane is to minimize the killing fragmentation in undesired directions. Why not just "borrow" one of those bombed and destroyed lamp-posts from the street if it has the right diameter. The housing contains and keeps the right shape of the explosives and the mass also helps concentrate the blasting energy in one direction.
 
 
Explosives
If you have plastic explosives then use that.
Else, take it from the artilleryshells.
The two most common explosives in artilleryshells are TNT and RDX.
Explosives are poisonous and will colour your skin, do the job outdoors or in a well ventilated room.
RDX in bombs and artilleryshells is used in a mixture with melting TNT or wax to make it castable. The RDX mixture then has many funny names like hexogen, hexotol, comp-A, comp-B and things like that dependent on in which nation and what it is mixed with.
Before trying to melt the explosives, remove any heat sensitive fusing explosives.
And first try a very small piece of explosives  instead of blowing up yourself and 10 kg of explosives.
TNT melts at 70 degrees C (some temperature variation dependent on which atoms in the toulene molecule were nitrated, don't be confused if you hear different sources tell different temperatures.)
The important thing to remember is to never overheat !
Keep far away from the approximately 200 degrees C where it sometimes detonates.
Try heat up the grenade in a water tank. The water temperature never exceeds 100 degrees as long as there is water. It's more safe if the grenade never comes in contact with the bottom of the tank.
RDX is more powerful than TNT.  RDX gives more penetration and demolition.
If you use TNT instead of RDX then you need a bigger EFP to do the same job.
 
Make sure there are no big air bubbles in the explosives when packing the explosives.
Airbubbles destroys the shape of the detonation wave.
 
 
Blastingcaps.
Use standard blastingcaps.
An EFP must be initiated symmetrical, in the center and aimed in the firing direction.
If you want an accurate cannon, then do a precision job.
For multiple EFPs, you must use explosives filled tubing of exactly the same length,  instead of separate blastingcaps.
Initiate simultaneously in one end. This will prevent the EFP that detonates first from destroying the others, or from directing them in another direction.
 
Use your fantasy when planting EFPs.
Minimize the weight of the camouflage, or remove it before detonation, or keep the standoff to the target short. Because the camouflage will change the direction of the projectile if it does not hit perpendicular.
Blastingcaps are available with different delay time which makes it easy.
 
If you need a popup weapon then try build something from a gas-spring that you can take from a cars backdoor or from an office chair..
This means that the weapon is invisible from the road until it is fired.
 

fgr
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